本文最初于 2020 年 9 月在公司内部发表,现整理并增加部分批注公开发布。

最开始加入公司 Infrastructure 团队时,迷茫的我接到的的一个任务就是学习 Lua 和 OpenResty,当时收到了两本书籍的 PDF 文件,要求尽快理解学习,能够掌握 Kong,并且具有研发能力。

当时我还没有怎么接触开源社区,能力只停留在 Git Clone,大概花了 2 周时间,我学习 Lua 基本语法后,开始阅读 Kong 项目的源码,并找到几个切入点梳理了源码分析文档,也应该正是这个成果让组长认同了我,这之后我负责公司 API Gateway 的开发,以及相关的落地工作。

那么本文针对 Kong 的启动流程、插件机制、缓存机制和请求的生命周期做了详细的阐述,不过仍有欠缺的是代理转发功能,例如负载均衡、健康检查、服务发现等,不过介于当时的我还是个懵懂的新人,这里就先原谅我自己了 🐾。

继这篇文章之后,我还撰写了 Kong Ingress Controller 源码分析,后续还有 APISIX 的源码分析哦。

1. 概述

本文针对的是 Kong 2.1 版本(Stable)。

我阅读并作出中文注释的 Commits 可以在这里看到:
https://github.com/mayocream/kong/commits?author=mayocream

Kong(OpenResty)的执行阶段

Kong 的插件机制也是基于 OpenResty 的生命周期,只不过是其在上层做了些许封装。

Kong 的数据库关联关系

Kong 虽然标称自己是 Cloud Native 项目1,也上榜了 CNCF 全景图,但是它还依赖于传统的数据库 PostgreSQL,并且还自定义了许多 function,相比于 APISIX 背后储存 Etcd 要弱了许多。比起 Etcd 能建立 HTTP 长连接 Watch 数据变化,Kong 只能依赖定时的轮询从数据库更新状态,数据库高可用也相比 Etcd 集群要复杂得多。

2. 配置文件

Kong 在启动阶段会解析 kong/templates 目录下的 .lua 模板文件,注入环境变量和 kong.conf 覆盖配置,生成 Nginx 启动的配置文件 nginx.conf

结构如下:

pid pids/nginx.pid;
error_log logs/error.log notice;

# injected nginx_main_* directives

env SKYWALKING_URL;

events {
    # injected nginx_events_* directives
    multi_accept on;
    worker_connections 16384;
}

http {
    lua_package_path       './?.lua;./?/init.lua;;;;';
    lua_package_cpath      ';;;';

    lua_shared_dict kong                        5m;
    lua_shared_dict kong_locks                  8m;
	...

    # injected nginx_http_* directives
    client_body_buffer_size 8k;

    init_by_lua_block {
        Kong = require 'kong'
        Kong.init()
    }

    init_worker_by_lua_block {
        Kong.init_worker()
    }

    upstream kong_upstream {
        server 0.0.0.1;

        # injected nginx_upstream_* directives
        
        balancer_by_lua_block {
            Kong.balancer()
        }
    }

	# Kong Proxy
    server {
        server_name kong;
		...
    }

	# Kong Admin API
    server {
        server_name kong_admin;
        ...
    }


}

Kong 定义了 NGINX_MAIN_XXX,诸如此类的环境变量,在解析配置阶段会加载到 nginx.conf 的指定位置,能够避免直接修改模板文件。

例如:

# 在 main 块里定义 env 变量
$ export NGINX_MAIN_ENV SKYWALKING_URL;
# 创建新的 lua shared dict
$ export NGINX_HTTP_Lua_SHARED_DICT tracing_buffer 128m;

Kong 官方的配置文档已经非常详尽,解释了各个参数代表的含义。

这里补充一点,通常我们需要定义多个 Shared dict,配置写法需要改成这种丑陋的形式:

nginx_http_lua_shared_dict = cache_buffer_one 128m; lua_shared_dict cache_buffer_two 128m

3. 初始化

3.1. 数据库初始化

Kong.init() 方法中初始化数据库相关:

  -- 数据库连接相关
  local db = assert(DB.new(config))
  assert(db:init_connector())
  kong.db = db

DB.new() 方法中依次调用了 Schema.new()Entity.new()DAO.new() 方法,下面一个个来说明。

3.1.1. Schema

Kong 的 Schema 数据结构体位于 db/schema/entities 下,就 routes.lua 为例:

local typedefs = require "kong.db.schema.typedefs"


return {
  name         = "routes",
  primary_key  = { "id" },
  endpoint_key = "name",
  workspaceable = true,
  subschema_key = "protocols",

  fields = {
    { id             = typedefs.uuid, },
    { created_at     = typedefs.auto_timestamp_s },
    { updated_at     = typedefs.auto_timestamp_s },
    { name           = typedefs.name },
    { protocols      = { type     = "set",
                         len_min  = 1,
                         required = true,
                         elements = typedefs.protocol,
                         mutually_exclusive_subsets = {
                           { "http", "https" },
                           { "tcp", "tls" },
                           { "grpc", "grpcs" },
                         },
                         default = { "http", "https" }, -- TODO: different default depending on service's scheme
                       }, },
    { methods        = typedefs.methods },
    { hosts          = typedefs.hosts },
    { paths          = typedefs.paths },
    { headers        = typedefs.headers },
    { https_redirect_status_code = { type = "integer",
                                     one_of = { 426, 301, 302, 307, 308 },
                                     default = 426, required = true,
                                   }, },
    { regex_priority = { type = "integer", default = 0 }, },
    { strip_path     = { type = "boolean", default = true }, },
    { path_handling  = { type = "string", default = "v0", one_of = { "v0", "v1" }, }, },
    { preserve_host  = { type = "boolean", default = false }, },
    { snis = { type = "set",
               elements = typedefs.sni }, },
    { sources = typedefs.sources },
    { destinations = typedefs.destinations },
    { tags             = typedefs.tags },
    { service = { type = "foreign", reference = "services" }, },
  },

  entity_checks = {
    { conditional = { if_field = "protocols",
                      if_match = { elements = { type = "string", not_one_of = { "grpcs", "https", "tls" }}},
                      then_field = "snis",
                      then_match = { len_eq = 0 },
                      then_err = "'snis' can only be set when 'protocols' is 'grpcs', 'https' or 'tls'",
                    }},
                  }
}

primary_key 是在数据库中主键也是当 cache_key 未定义时的默认 cache_key

type=foreign 的情况,entity 加载时会当作 subschema 加载进来。

插件不同于其他 entity,有特定 cache_key。

  name = "plugins",
  primary_key = { "id" },
  cache_key = { "name", "route", "service", "consumer" },

Cache 相关操作中调用 Entity.cache_key() 获取。

    local cache_key = dao:cache_key(entity)
    local ok, err = cache:safe_set(cache_key, entity)

具体生成 cache_key 的方法,返回一个字符串作为缓存 key。

function DAO:cache_key(key, arg2, arg3, arg4, arg5, ws_id)

  if self.schema.workspaceable then
    ws_id = ws_id or workspaces.get_workspace_id()
  end

  -- Fast path: passing the cache_key/primary_key entries in
  -- order as arguments, this produces the same result as
  -- the generic code below, but building the cache key
  -- becomes a single string.format operation
  if type(key) == "string" then
    return fmt("%s:%s:%s:%s:%s:%s:%s", self.schema.name,
               key == nil and "" or key,
               arg2 == nil and "" or arg2,
               arg3 == nil and "" or arg3,
               arg4 == nil and "" or arg4,
               arg5 == nil and "" or arg5,
               ws_id == nil and "" or ws_id)
  end

  -- Generic path: build the cache key from the fields
  -- listed in cache_key or primary_key

  if type(key) ~= "table" then
    error("key must be a string or an entity table", 2)
  end

  if key.ws_id then
    ws_id = key.ws_id
  end

  local values = new_tab(7, 0)
  values[1] = self.schema.name
  local source = self.schema.cache_key or self.schema.primary_key

  local i = 2
  for _, name in ipairs(source) do
    local field = self.schema.fields[name]
    local value = key[name]
    if value == null or value == nil then
      value = ""
    elseif field.type == "foreign" then
      -- FIXME extract foreign key, do not assume `id`
      value = value.id
    end
    values[i] = tostring(value)
    i = i + 1
  end
  for n = i, 6 do
    values[n] = ""
  end

  values[7] = ws_id or ""

  return concat(values, ":")
end

schema/init.lua 中定义了 schema 相关操作的基本方法:

-- each_field() 用于遍历 schema 的 fields
-- 是 schema 相关操作最频繁的
function Schema:each_field(values)
  local i = 1

  local subschema
  if values then
    subschema = get_subschema(self, values)
  end

  return function()
    local item = self.fields[i]
    if not item then
      return nil
    end
    local key = next(item)
    local field = resolve_field(self, key, item[key], subschema)
    i = i + 1
    return key, field
  end
end

Schema.new() 方法中通过元组设置 __index 让结构体继承 Schema 下定义的一系列操作方法。

function Schema.new(definition, is_subschema)
  if not definition then
    return nil, validation_errors.SCHEMA_NO_DEFINITION
  end

  if not definition.fields then
    return nil, validation_errors.SCHEMA_NO_FIELDS
  end

  local self = copy(definition)

  -- 继承 Schema 下定义的一系列操作方法
  setmetatable(self, Schema)

  -- entity 缓存的 cache_key,
  -- 如果没有这个字段,则默认使用 schema 定义的
  -- primary_key 来作为 cache_key
  -- cache_key 是个数组,
  -- 这里只是分开储存
  if self.cache_key then
    self.cache_key_set = {}
    for _, name in ipairs(self.cache_key) do
      self.cache_key_set[name] = true
    end
  end


  -- 通过元组 __index 方法调用 Schema:each_field() 方法
  -- 遍历 schema 的 fields table
  for key, field in self:each_field() do
    -- Also give access to fields by name
    self.fields[key] = field
    if field.type == "record" and field.fields then
      allow_record_fields_by_name(field)
    end

    -- 如果有外键
    -- 则加载外键关联的 schema 进来
    if field.type == "foreign" then
      local err
      field.schema, err = get_foreign_schema_for_field(field)
      if not field.schema then
        return nil, err
      end

      if not is_subschema then
        -- Store the inverse relation for implementing constraints
        local constraints = assert(_cache[field.reference]).constraints
        table.insert(constraints, {
          schema     = self,
          field_name = key,
          on_delete  = field.on_delete,
        })
      end
    end
  end

  if self.workspaceable and self.name then
    if not _workspaceable[self.name] then
      _workspaceable[self.name] = true
      table.insert(_workspaceable, { schema = self })
    end
  end

  if self.name then
    -- do not reset the constraints list if a schema in reloaded
    if not _cache[self.name] then
      _cache[self.name] = {
        constraints = {},
      }
    end
    -- but always update the schema object in cache
    _cache[self.name].schema = self
  end

  return self
end

用于下级继承的元组,虚晃一枪。

local Schema       = {}
Schema.__index     = Schema

3.1.2. Entity

Entity 只是简单对 Schema 进行一层封装。

-- definition 是 schema 结构体
function Entity.new(definition)

  -- 初始化 Schema 对象
  local self, err = Schema.new(definition)
  if not self then
    return nil, err
  end

  -- 遍历 schema fields
  for name, field in self:each_field() do
    if field.nilable then
      return nil, entity_errors.NO_NILABLE:format(name)
    end

    if field.abstract then
      goto continue
    end

    if field.type == "map" then
      if field.keys.type ~= "string" then
        return nil, entity_errors.MAP_KEY_STRINGS_ONLY:format(name)
      end

    elseif field.type == "record" then
      make_records_required(field)

    elseif field.type == "function" then
      return nil, entity_errors.NO_FUNCTIONS:format(name)
    end

    ::continue::
  end

  self.new_subschema = Entity.new_subschema

  return self
end

Entity 对象随后被加载到 DB.new() 函数中:

local schemas = {}

do
  -- load schemas
  -- core entities are for now the only source of schemas.
  -- TODO: support schemas from plugins entities as well.

  -- 载入核心 entity,为什么是核心 entity
  -- 因为还有 plugin 自定义的 entity
  -- 这些 entity 是 Kong 自身的
  for _, entity_name in ipairs(constants.CORE_ENTITIES) do

    -- 加载 schema(数据结构体)
    local entity_schema = require("kong.db.schema.entities." .. entity_name)

    -- validate core entities schema via metaschema
    local ok, err_t = MetaSchema:validate(entity_schema)
    if not ok then
      return nil, fmt("schema of entity '%s' is invalid: %s", entity_name,
                      tostring(errors:schema_violation(err_t)))
    end

    -- 加载 entity 对象
    local entity, err = Entity.new(entity_schema)
    if not entity then
      return nil, fmt("schema of entity '%s' is invalid: %s", entity_name,
                      err)
    end
    schemas[entity_name] = entity

    -- load core entities subschemas
    local subschemas
    ok, subschemas = utils.load_module_if_exists("kong.db.schema.entities." .. entity_name .. "_subschemas")
    if ok then
      for name, subschema in pairs(subschemas) do
        local ok, err = entity:new_subschema(name, subschema)
        if not ok then
          return nil, ("error initializing schema for %s: %s"):format(entity_name, err)
        end
      end
    end
  end
end

3.1.3. DAO

db/dao/init.lua 中定义了一系列对数据库操作的方法,例如:

function DAO:select(primary_key, options)
function DAO:page(size, offset, options)
function DAO:each(size, options)
function DAO:insert(entity, options)
function DAO:update(primary_key, entity, options)
function DAO:delete(primary_key, options)
...

DAO.new() 会创建一个包含 db 连接信息,entity 的 table。

-- schema 参数是 Entity 对象
--  DB 结构体:  local self   = {
  --    daos       = daos,       -- each of those has the connector singleton
  --    strategies = strategies,
  --    connector  = connector,
  --    strategy   = strategy,
  --    errors     = errors,
  --    infos      = connector:infos(),
  --    kong_config = kong_config,
  --  }
function _M.new(db, schema, strategy, errors)
  local fk_methods = generate_foreign_key_methods(schema)
  -- 继承 DAO 基础方法
  local super      = setmetatable(fk_methods, DAO)

  local self = {
    db         = db,
    schema     = schema,
    strategy   = strategy,
    errors     = errors,
    pagination = utils.shallow_copy(defaults.pagination),
    super      = super,
  }

  if schema.dao then
    -- 插件自定义的 dao
    local custom_dao = require(schema.dao)
    for name, method in pairs(custom_dao) do
      self[name] = method
    end
  end

  return setmetatable(self, { __index = super })
end

db\init.lua 中加载所有 DAO 对象。

  do
    -- load DAOs

    for _, schema in pairs(schemas) do
      local strategy = strategies[schema.name]
      if not strategy then
        return nil, fmt("no strategy found for schema '%s'", schema.name)
      end

      -- 储存 daos
      daos[schema.name] = DAO.new(self, schema, strategy, errors)
    end
  end

和上面结构一样,DB.new() 中最后为 table 设置元组 __index 方法。

  -- 设置元组 __index 方法
  -- 访问不存在的对象则先
  -- DB.xxx 再访问 DB.daos.xxx
  return setmetatable(self, DB)
  
  
local DB = {}
DB.__index = function(self, k)
  -- rawget 为不调用元组 __index 方法,直接获取原数据
  return DB[k] or rawget(self, "daos")[k]
end

Kong 中其他地方调用数据库方法,操作符为 kong.db.services:each_fields(),即实际调用 daos.servicesentity:each_fields()(实际是 Schema:each_fields())。

DAO 下面还有封装的数据库操作层,例如 postgresql 生成 SQL 语句的方法,这里就不赘述了。

DAO 这一层一层的封装看得我是真的脑壳痛,IDE 还没有对 lua 的智能提示,按住 Ctrl 毛都显示不出来。

3.2. 缓存构建

init_by_lua 阶段初始化 Master 进程,进行解析配置文件、连接数据库、清空共享内存、构建路由缓存等操作。

reset_kong_shm 代码块里清理共享内存。

    local shms = {
      "kong",
      "kong_locks",
      "kong_healthchecks",
      "kong_process_events",
      "kong_cluster_events",
      "kong_rate_limiting_counters",
      "kong_core_db_cache" .. suffix,
      "kong_core_db_cache_miss" .. suffix,
      "kong_db_cache" .. suffix,
      "kong_db_cache_miss" .. suffix,
      "kong_clustering",
    }

    for _, shm in ipairs(shms) do
      local dict = ngx.shared[shm]
      -- 清空共享内存
      if dict then
        dict:flush_all()
        dict:flush_expired(0)
      end
    end

3.2.1. 路由缓存

  else
    -- DB 模式
    local default_ws = db.workspaces:select_by_name("default")
    kong.default_workspace = default_ws and default_ws.id

    local ok, err = runloop.build_plugins_iterator("init")
    if not ok then
      error("error building initial plugins: " .. tostring(err))
    end

    -- 初始化路由
    -- 构建路由缓存
    assert(runloop.build_router("init"))
  end

  db:close()
end

DB 模式下最后一步会调用 runloop.build_router("init") 构建路由缓存。

构建路由缓存过程中,判断 Kong 是否已经初始化过 Cache 组件,init 阶段没有完成初始化 Cache,则创建一个 Lua table 缓存路由信息。build_services_init_cache() 方法会分页加载所有 Service 到 table 中,对取出来的 Services,判断当前使用的 Nginx 模式(http/stream)是否对应路由指定的协议,对应则取出 Service 对象,与 Route 进行关联。最后传递给 Router.new() 方法通过算法建立树形结构建立路由索引。

Kong 基于 Nginx Subsystem 支持的协议对应关系:

  • http/https -> http
  • grpc/grpcs -> http
  • tcp/tls -> stream
  build_router = function(version)
    local db = kong.db
    -- table 储存所有的 route-service 数据
    local routes, i = {}, 0

    local err
    -- The router is initially created on init phase, where kong.core_cache is
    -- still not ready. For those cases, use a plain Lua table as a cache
    -- instead
    -- init 阶段 core_cache 还没有初始化完成
    -- 这里使用 table 储存
    local services_init_cache = {}
    if not kong.core_cache and db.strategy ~= "off" then
      -- 获取所有的 services,使用默认的分页参数
      services_init_cache, err = build_services_init_cache(db)
      if err then
        services_init_cache = {}
        log(WARN, "could not build services init cache: ", err)
      end
    end

    local counter = 0
    local page_size = db.routes.pagination.page_size
    for route, err in db.routes:each(nil, GLOBAL_QUERY_OPTS) do
      if err then
        return nil, "could not load routes: " .. err
      end

      -- 检查 router 数据是否已经变化
      -- 通过检查 router hash 是否一致判断
      -- 如果已经变化则退出函数
      if db.strategy ~= "off" then
        if kong.core_cache and counter > 0 and counter % page_size == 0 then
          local new_version, err = get_router_version()
          if err then
            return nil, "failed to retrieve router version: " .. err
          end

          if new_version ~= version then
            return nil, "router was changed while rebuilding it"
          end
        end
      end

      -- subsystem 是否支持当前路由的协议
      if should_process_route(route) then
        -- 获取 route 的 service
        local service, err = get_service_for_route(db, route, services_init_cache)
        if err then
          return nil, err
        end

        local r = {
          route   = route,
          service = service,
        }

        i = i + 1
        -- 储存所有的 route-service
        routes[i] = r
      end

      counter = counter + 1
    end

    local new_router, err = Router.new(routes)
    if not new_router then
      return nil, "could not create router: " .. err
    end

    -- router 实例
    router = new_router

    if version then
      router_version = version
    end

    -- LEGACY - singletons module is deprecated
    singletons.router = router
    -- /LEGACY

    return true
  end

构建路由缓存过程中,判断 Kong 是否已经初始化过 Cache 组件,init 阶段没有完成初始化 Cache,则创建一个 Lua table 缓存 services。

  -- 以 [service.id] = service
  -- 结构储存到 table 中
  local function build_services_init_cache(db)
    local services_init_cache = {}

    for service, err in db.services:each(nil, GLOBAL_QUERY_OPTS) do
      if err then
        return nil, err
      end

      services_init_cache[service.id] = service
    end

    return services_init_cache
  end

build_services_init_cache(db) 方法,调用 DAO:each() 函数,使用默认分页参数 page_size=1000,进行分页获取,再返回可迭代的单条记录。这里因为 init_by_lua 阶段没有初始化缓存(kong.core_cache ),所以使用 Lua table 储存缓存数据。

function DAO:each(size, options)
  if size ~= nil then
    validate_size_type(size)
  end

  -- 获取分页条件,有默认值
  options = get_pagination_options(self, options)

  if size ~= nil then
    local ok, err = validate_size_value(size, options.pagination.max_page_size)
    if not ok then
      local err_t = self.errors:invalid_size(err)
      return nil, tostring(err_t), err_t
    end

  else
    size = options.pagination.page_size
  end

  local ok, errors = validate_options_value(self, options)
  if not ok then
    local err_t = self.errors:invalid_options(errors)
    return nil, tostring(err_t), err_t
  end

  local pager = function(size, offset, options)
    return self.strategy:page(size, offset, options)
  end

  return iteration.by_row(self, pager, size, options)
end

默认分页参数在 db/strategies/connector.lua 文件中:

local Connector = {
  defaults = {
    -- 默认分页条件
    pagination = {
      page_size     = 1000,
      max_page_size = 50000,
    },
  },
}

接下来会遍历所有的 Routes,逐个调用 should_process_route()get_service_for_route() 方法,前者会判断 Nginx Subsystem 是否和 Route 协议一致,后者先在缓存中查找 Service,如果缓存中不存在则从数据库中获取。

  local function get_service_for_route(db, route, services_init_cache)
    -- route 关联的 service 外键
    local service_pk = route.service
    if not service_pk then
      return nil
    end

    -- 查找缓存 table 里的 service
    local id = service_pk.id
    local service = services_init_cache[id]
    if service then
      return service
    end

    local err

    -- kong.core_cache is available, not in init phase
    if kong.core_cache then
      -- 通过 mlcache 查询 service
      local cache_key = db.services:cache_key(service_pk.id, nil, nil, nil, nil,
                                              route.ws_id)
      -- 查询 cache 获取,没有获取到则调用 load_service_from_db 获取
      service, err = kong.core_cache:get(cache_key, TTL_ZERO,
                                    load_service_from_db, service_pk)

    else -- init phase, kong.core_cache not available

      -- A new service/route has been inserted while the initial route
      -- was being created, on init (perhaps by a different Kong node).
      -- Load the service individually and update services_init_cache with it
      -- 直接查询数据库获取 service
      service, err = load_service_from_db(service_pk)
      services_init_cache[id] = service
    end

    if err then
      return nil, "error raised while finding service for route (" .. route.id .. "): " ..
                  err

    elseif not service then
      return nil, "could not find service for route (" .. route.id .. ")"
    end


    -- TODO: this should not be needed as the schema should check it already
    if SUBSYSTEMS[service.protocol] ~= subsystem then
      log(WARN, "service with protocol '", service.protocol,
                "' cannot be used with '", subsystem, "' subsystem")

      return nil
    end

    return service
  end

load_service_from_db() 方法中只是简单调用 DAO:select() 方法,取出 Service 同时缓存到 services_init_cache table 中,不更新 Kong.core_cache 组件。

对数据库实体对象的处理中,只有createupdatedelete 会通过事件广播到其他 Worker 同步,后面事件的一节我们会详细阐述。

接下来将 {router, service} 数组传入 router.iuaRouter.new() 函数处理。

local new_router, err = Router.new(routes)
if not new_router then
    return nil, "could not create router: " .. err
end

-- 绑定 router 实例
router = new_router

具体构建路由索引的过程在 router.lua 中的 _M.new(routes) 函数,使用 lua-resty-lrucache 包缓存,对路由和 Service 组合通过算法进行排序,构建索引,将诸如 {cache_key: {route, service}} 结构存入缓存中,返回 Router 实例。

路由索引 Key 的构建方法:

    local cache_key = req_method .. "|" .. req_uri .. "|" .. req_host ..
                      "|" .. ctx.src_ip .. "|" .. ctx.src_port ..
                      "|" .. ctx.dst_ip .. "|" .. ctx.dst_port ..
                      "|" .. ctx.sni

Router 实例由 Master 进程构建,并 fork 到各个 Worker 进程使用。

Worker 执行完共享内存的构建后,注册定时任务,定时重建缓存。

      -- 定时重建路由缓存
      if kong.db.strategy ~= "off" then
        timer_every(worker_state_update_frequency, function(premature)
          if premature then
            return
          end

          -- Don't wait for the semaphore (timeout = 0) when updating via the
          -- timer.
          -- If the semaphore is locked, that means that the rebuild is
          -- already ongoing.
          local ok, err = rebuild_router(ROUTER_ASYNC_OPTS)
          if not ok then
            log(ERR, "could not rebuild router via timer: ", err)
          end
        end)

        timer_every(worker_state_update_frequency, function(premature)
          if premature then
            return
          end

          local ok, err = rebuild_plugins_iterator(PLUGINS_ITERATOR_ASYNC_OPTS)
          if not ok then
            log(ERR, "could not rebuild plugins iterator via timer: ", err)
          end
        end)
      end

3.2.2. Entity 缓存

这里首先介绍一下 lua-resty-mlcache 这个缓存库,该库基于 lua_shared_dictlua-resty-lrucache 做了两层缓存,Worker 会有自己的进程级别的 LRU 缓存,首先会在这一层进行查询,其次使用共享内存进行缓存,最后提供 callback 从数据库查询,使用 lua-resty-lock 库创建锁只允许单个进程执行 callback。

mlcache 架构图:

┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
│ Nginx                                           │
│       ┌───────────┐ ┌───────────┐ ┌───────────┐ │
│       │worker     │ │worker     │ │worker     │ │
│ L1    │           │ │           │ │           │ │
│       │ Lua cache │ │ Lua cache │ │ Lua cache │ │
│       └───────────┘ └───────────┘ └───────────┘ │
│             │             │             │       │
│             ▼             ▼             ▼       │
│       ┌───────────────────────────────────────┐ │
│       │                                       │ │
│ L2    │           lua_shared_dict             │ │
│       │                                       │ │
│       └───────────────────────────────────────┘ │
│                           │ mutex               │
│                           ▼                     │
│                  ┌──────────────────┐           │
│                  │     callback     │           │
│                  └────────┬─────────┘           │
└───────────────────────────┼─────────────────────┘
                            │
  L3                        │   I/O fetch
                            ▼

                   Database, API, DNS, Disk, any I/O...

Kong.init_worker() 中进行初始化缓存:

  -- 初始化基于共享内存的 cache
  local cache, err = kong_global.init_cache(kong.configuration, cluster_events, worker_events)
  if not cache then
    stash_init_worker_error("failed to instantiate 'kong.cache' module: " ..
                            err)
    return
  end
  kong.cache = cache

  local core_cache, err = kong_global.init_core_cache(kong.configuration, cluster_events, worker_events)
  if not core_cache then
    stash_init_worker_error("failed to instantiate 'kong.core_cache' module: " ..
                            err)
    return
  end
  kong.core_cache = core_cache

  ok, err = runloop.set_init_versions_in_cache()
  if not ok then
    stash_init_worker_error(err) -- 'err' fully formatted
    return
  end

global.init_cache() 结构如下:

function _GLOBAL.init_cache(kong_config, cluster_events, worker_events)
  local db_cache_ttl = kong_config.db_cache_ttl
  local db_cache_neg_ttl = kong_config.db_cache_neg_ttl
  local cache_pages = 1
  if kong_config.database == "off" then
    db_cache_ttl = 0
    db_cache_neg_ttl = 0
    cache_pages = 2
  end

  return kong_cache.new {
    shm_name          = "kong_db_cache",
    cluster_events    = cluster_events,
    worker_events     = worker_events,
    ttl               = db_cache_ttl,
    neg_ttl           = db_cache_neg_ttl or db_cache_ttl,
    resurrect_ttl     = kong_config.resurrect_ttl,
    cache_pages       = cache_pages,
    resty_lock_opts   = {
      exptime = 10,
      timeout = 5,
    },
  }
end

最终会调用 cache.lua_M.new() 进行必要参数的验证,检测共享内存块是否可以访问,关联集群事件和 Worker 事件,定义序列化和反序列化的方法,对 mlcache 进行一层封装。

function _M.new(opts)
  -- opts validation

  opts = opts or {}

  local mlcaches = {}
  local shm_names = {}

  for i = 1, opts.cache_pages or 1 do
    local channel_name  = (i == 1) and "mlcache"                 or "mlcache_2"
    local shm_name      = (i == 1) and opts.shm_name             or opts.shm_name .. "_2"
    local shm_miss_name = (i == 1) and opts.shm_name .. "_miss"  or opts.shm_name .. "_miss_2"

    if ngx.shared[shm_name] then
      local mlcache, err = resty_mlcache.new(shm_name, shm_name, {
        shm_miss         = shm_miss_name,
        shm_locks        = "kong_locks",
        shm_set_retries  = 3,
        lru_size         = LRU_SIZE,
        ttl              = max(opts.ttl     or 3600, 0),
        neg_ttl          = max(opts.neg_ttl or 300,  0),
        resurrect_ttl    = opts.resurrect_ttl or 30,
        resty_lock_opts  = opts.resty_lock_opts,
        ipc = { -- 进程间通信的函数绑定
          register_listeners = function(events)
            for _, event_t in pairs(events) do
              opts.worker_events.register(function(data)
                event_t.handler(data)
              end, channel_name, event_t.channel)
            end
          end,
          broadcast = function(channel, data)
            local ok, err = opts.worker_events.post(channel_name, channel, data)
            if not ok then
              log(ERR, "failed to post event '", channel_name, "', '",
                       channel, "': ", err)
            end
          end
        }
      })
      if not mlcache then
        return nil, "failed to instantiate mlcache: " .. err
      end
      mlcaches[i] = mlcache
      shm_names[i] = shm_name
    end
  end

  local curr_mlcache = 1

  if opts.cache_pages == 2 then
    curr_mlcache = ngx.shared.kong:get("kong:cache:" .. opts.shm_name .. ":curr_mlcache") or 1
  end

  local self          = {
    cluster_events    = opts.cluster_events,
    mlcache           = mlcaches[curr_mlcache],
    mlcaches          = mlcaches,
    shm_names         = shm_names,
    curr_mlcache      = curr_mlcache,
  }

  local ok, err = self.cluster_events:subscribe("invalidations", function(key)
    log(DEBUG, "received invalidate event from cluster for key: '", key, "'")
    self:invalidate_local(key)
  end)
  if not ok then
    return nil, "failed to subscribe to invalidations cluster events " ..
                "channel: " .. err
  end

  _init[opts.shm_name] = true

  return setmetatable(self, mt)
end

初始化完缓存模块后,Worker 会根据配置文件中的 db_cache_warmup_entities 加载指定的数据库资源到内存进行缓存,默认配置会缓存 services, plugins

LRU_SIZE 值为 500,000,单位是 item,设置最大能储存的 item 数量,这个值表示单个 Worker LRU Cache 最大占用 500M 内存。

Worker 会根据配置项加载数据库实体到共享内存缓存。

local function execute_cache_warmup(kong_config)
  if kong_config.database == "off" then
    return true
  end

  -- 只在一个 worker 上执行操作
  -- 加载数据库实体到共享内存缓存
  if ngx.worker.id() == 0 then
    local ok, err = cache_warmup.execute(kong_config.db_cache_warmup_entities)
    if not ok then
      return nil, err
    end
  end

  return true
end

这里只在一个 Worker 进程上加载数据库数据,随后同步到其他的 Worker 上。

cache_warmup.execute() 里做基本信息的检测,随后调用 cache_warmup_single_entity(dao) 方法。

-- 加载数据库实体到缓存,以实现更快的访问速度
-- 在 Worker 初始化阶段运行
-- 默认加载 service, plugins
-- 大小受配置 mem_cache_size 影响
-- Loads entities from the database into the cache, for rapid subsequent
-- access. This function is intented to be used during worker initialization.
function cache_warmup.execute(entities)
  if not kong.cache or not kong.core_cache then
    return true
  end

  for _, entity_name in ipairs(entities) do
    if entity_name == "routes" then
      -- do not spend shm memory by caching individual Routes entries
      -- because the routes are kept in-memory by building the router object
      kong.log.notice("the 'routes' entry is ignored in the list of ",
                      "'db_cache_warmup_entities' because Kong ",
                      "caches routes in memory separately")
      goto continue
    end

    local dao = kong.db[entity_name]
    if not (type(dao) == "table" and dao.schema) then
      kong.log.warn(entity_name, " is not a valid entity name, please check ",
                    "the value of 'db_cache_warmup_entities'")
      goto continue
    end

    local ok, err = cache_warmup_single_entity(dao)
    if not ok then
      if err == "no memory" then
        kong.log.warn("cache warmup has been stopped because cache ",
                      "memory is exhausted, please consider increasing ",
                      "the value of 'mem_cache_size' (currently at ",
                      kong.configuration.mem_cache_size, ")")

        return true
      end
      return nil, err
    end

    ::continue::
  end

  return true
end

不缓存 Routes,因为 Route 已经在上一节中构建为路由索引树,通过 fork 到所有的 Worker 内存里了。

local function cache_warmup_single_entity(dao)
  local entity_name = dao.schema.name

  -- 选定储存地方 cache/core_cache
  local cache_store = constants.ENTITY_CACHE_STORE[entity_name]
  -- cache 全局对象
  local cache = kong[cache_store]

  ngx.log(ngx.NOTICE, "Preloading '", entity_name, "' into the ", cache_store, "...")

  local start = ngx.now()

  local hosts_array, hosts_set, host_count
  if entity_name == "services" then
    hosts_array = {}
    hosts_set = {}
    host_count = 0
  end

  for entity, err in dao:each(nil, GLOBAL_QUERY_OPTS) do
    if err then
      return nil, err
    end

    if entity_name == "services" then
      if utils.hostname_type(entity.host) == "name"
         and hosts_set[entity.host] == nil then
        host_count = host_count + 1
        hosts_array[host_count] = entity.host
        hosts_set[entity.host] = true
      end
    end

    -- 获取 cache_key
    local cache_key = dao:cache_key(entity)

    -- 调用 mlcache 的 safe_set 方法,
    -- 内存不足会报错
    local ok, err = cache:safe_set(cache_key, entity)
    if not ok then
      return nil, err
    end
  end

  if entity_name == "services" and host_count > 0 then
    ngx.timer.at(0, warmup_dns, hosts_array, host_count)
  end

  local elapsed = math.floor((ngx.now() - start) * 1000)

  ngx.log(ngx.NOTICE, "finished preloading '", entity_name,
                      "' into the ", cache_store, " (in ", tostring(elapsed), "ms)")
  return true
end

cache_warmup_single_entity() 会加载该 dao 所有的数据到内存中,set 方法会分发事件同步数据到其他的 Worker 上,最终每个 Worker 都会缓存一份。

3.3. 事件订阅

Kong.init_worker() 中初始化 Worker 事件和集群事件。

  local worker_events, err = kong_global.init_worker_events()
  if not worker_events then
    stash_init_worker_error("failed to instantiate 'kong.worker_events' " ..
                            "module: " .. err)
    return
  end
  kong.worker_events = worker_events

  local cluster_events, err = kong_global.init_cluster_events(kong.configuration, kong.db)
  if not cluster_events then
    stash_init_worker_error("failed to instantiate 'kong.cluster_events' " ..
                            "module: " .. err)
    return
  end
  kong.cluster_events = cluster_events

Worker 事件内部是使用 lua-resty-worker-events 库实现的进程间事件处理,原理是通过共享内存储存事件,每秒拉取共享内存中的事件,进行处理。

function _GLOBAL.init_worker_events()
  -- Note: worker_events will not work correctly if required at the top of the file.
  --       It must be required right here, inside the init function
  local worker_events = require "resty.worker.events"

  local ok, err = worker_events.configure {
    shm = "kong_process_events", -- defined by "lua_shared_dict"
    timeout = 5,            -- life time of event data in shm
    interval = 1,           -- poll interval (seconds)

    wait_interval = 0.010,  -- wait before retry fetching event data
    wait_max = 0.5,         -- max wait time before discarding event
  }
  if not ok then
    return nil, err
  end

  return worker_events
end

集群事件(多个 Kong 之间的通信)是通过将事件储存在数据库中,定时轮询数据库查询事件,进行处理。

function _GLOBAL.init_cluster_events(kong_config, db)
  return kong_cluster_events.new({
    db            = db,
    poll_interval = kong_config.db_update_frequency,
    poll_offset   = kong_config.db_update_propagation,
    poll_delay    = kong_config.db_update_propagation,
  })
end

从这里可以看到集群事件是通过数据库表实现的:

function _M:broadcast(channel, data, delay)
  if type(channel) ~= "string" then
    return nil, "channel must be a string"
  end

  if type(data) ~= "string" then
    return nil, "data must be a string"
  end

  if delay and type(delay) ~= "number" then
    return nil, "delay must be a number"

  elseif self.poll_delay > 0 then
    delay = self.poll_delay
  end

  -- insert event row

  --log(DEBUG, "broadcasting on channel: '", channel, "' data: ", data,
  --           " with delay: ", delay and delay or "none")

  local ok, err = self.strategy:insert(self.node_id, channel, nil, data, delay)
  if not ok then
    return nil, err
  end

  return true
end


function _M:subscribe(channel, cb, start_polling)
  if type(channel) ~= "string" then
    return error("channel must be a string")
  end

  if type(cb) ~= "function" then
    return error("callback must be a function")
  end

  if not self.callbacks[channel] then
    self.callbacks[channel] = { cb }

    insert(self.channels, channel)

  else
    insert(self.callbacks[channel], cb)
  end

  if start_polling == nil then
    start_polling = true
  end

  if not self.polling and start_polling and self.use_polling then
    -- start recurring polling timer

    local ok, err = timer_at(self.poll_interval, poll_handler, self)
    if not ok then
      return nil, "failed to start polling timer: " .. err
    end

    self.polling = true
  end

  return true
end

cache.lua 中集群事件订阅 cache 失效事件,内部调用 mlcache 的 delete 方法,同步到所有的 Worker 上。

  local ok, err = self.cluster_events:subscribe("invalidations", function(key)
    log(DEBUG, "received invalidate event from cluster for key: '", key, "'")
    self:invalidate_local(key)
  end)


function _M:invalidate_local(key, shadow)
  if type(key) ~= "string" then
    error("key must be a string", 2)
  end

  log(DEBUG, "invalidating (local): '", key, "'")

  local current_page = self.curr_mlcache or 1
  local delete_page
  if shadow and #self.mlcaches == 2 then
    delete_page = current_page == 1 and 2 or 1
  else
    delete_page = current_page
  end

  local ok, err = self.mlcaches[delete_page]:delete(key)
  if not ok then
    log(ERR, "failed to delete entity from node cache: ", err)
  end
end

这部分主要描述 Kong 初始化过程中的事件相关操作,主要是初始化事件订阅,关联到 mlcache 的 IPC 进程间通信,订阅 cache 的失效事件,并关联 DAO 的事件发布。

function DB:set_events_handler(events)
  for _, dao in pairs(self.daos) do
    dao.events = events
  end
end

4. 事件分发

Kong 中众多部分通过非阻塞的 ngx.timer.at()ngx.timer.every() 函数执行定时任务。这一部分较为分散,主要叙述 Kong 执行非阻塞一次性事件处理,和典型的定时任务。

4.1. 单次任务

4.1.1. DNS 解析

cache_warmup.lua 中缓存 services 对象时,Kong 会非阻塞地获取 services 中 host 对应的 ip。

  if entity_name == "services" and host_count > 0 then
    ngx.timer.at(0, warmup_dns, hosts_array, host_count)
  end

local function warmup_dns(premature, hosts, count)
  if premature then
    return
  end

  ngx.log(ngx.NOTICE, "warming up DNS entries ...")

  local start = ngx.now()

  for i = 1, count do
    kong.dns.toip(hosts[i])
  end

  local elapsed = math.floor((ngx.now() - start) * 1000)

  ngx.log(ngx.NOTICE, "finished warming up DNS entries",
                      "' into the cache (in ", tostring(elapsed), "ms)")
end

Kong 内部 dns 模块使用 lua-resty-dns-client,这个库也是由 Kong 开源的,特色有 toip 函数会根据 dns 返回 ip 的权重配置加权轮询的权重,储存 dns 查询的结果在内存中。

warmup_dns() 内调用 kong.dns.toip() 方法:

local function warmup_dns(premature, hosts, count)
  if premature then
    return
  end

  ngx.log(ngx.NOTICE, "warming up DNS entries ...")

  local start = ngx.now()

  for i = 1, count do
    kong.dns.toip(hosts[i])
  end

  local elapsed = math.floor((ngx.now() - start) * 1000)

  ngx.log(ngx.NOTICE, "finished warming up DNS entries",
                      "' into the cache (in ", tostring(elapsed), "ms)")
end

4.2. 定时任务

4.2.1. 集群任务

cluster_events/init.lua 中集群事情订阅函数里启用定时器轮询数据库集群事件表。

function _M:subscribe(channel, cb, start_polling)
  if type(channel) ~= "string" then
    return error("channel must be a string")
  end

  if type(cb) ~= "function" then
    return error("callback must be a function")
  end

  if not self.callbacks[channel] then
    self.callbacks[channel] = { cb }

    insert(self.channels, channel)

  else
    insert(self.callbacks[channel], cb)
  end

  if start_polling == nil then
    start_polling = true
  end

  if not self.polling and start_polling and self.use_polling then
    -- start recurring polling timer

    local ok, err = timer_at(self.poll_interval, poll_handler, self)
    if not ok then
      return nil, "failed to start polling timer: " .. err
    end

    self.polling = true
  end

  return true
end

这里因为要在每次循环调用时进行锁的判断,所以没有使用 ngx.timer.every() 函数,而是用无限循环调用 ngx.timer.at()

poll_handler = function(premature, self)
  if premature or not self.polling then
    -- set self.polling to false to stop a polling loop
    return
  end

  if not get_lock(self) then
    local ok, err = timer_at(self.poll_interval, poll_handler, self)
    if not ok then
      log(CRIT, "failed to start recurring polling timer: ", err)
    end

    return
  end

  -- single worker

  local pok, perr, err = pcall(poll, self)
  if not pok then
    log(ERR, "poll() threw an error: ", perr)

  elseif not perr then
    log(ERR, "failed to poll: ", err)
  end

  -- unlock

  self.shm:delete(POLL_RUNNING_LOCK_KEY)

  local ok, err = timer_at(self.poll_interval, poll_handler, self)
  if not ok then
    log(CRIT, "failed to start recurring polling timer: ", err)
  end
end

锁通过共享内存事件,保证只有一个 Worker 执行单次任务。

local function get_lock(self)
  -- check if a poll is not currently running, to ensure we don't start
  -- another poll while a worker is still stuck in its own polling (in
  -- case it is being slow)
  -- we still add an exptime to this lock in case something goes horribly
  -- wrong, to ensure other workers can poll new events
  -- a poll cannot take more than max(poll_interval * 5, 10) -- 10s min
  local ok, err = self.shm:safe_add(POLL_RUNNING_LOCK_KEY, true,
                                    max(self.poll_interval * 5, 10))
  if not ok then
    if err ~= "exists" then
      log(ERR, "failed to acquire poll_running lock: ", err)
    end
    -- else
    --   log(DEBUG, "failed to acquire poll_running lock: ",
    --              "a worker still holds the lock")

    return false
  end

  if self.poll_interval > 0.001 then
    -- check if interval of `poll_interval` has elapsed already, to ensure
    -- we do not run the poll when a previous poll was quickly executed, but
    -- another worker got the timer trigger a bit too late.
    ok, err = self.shm:safe_add(POLL_INTERVAL_LOCK_KEY, true,
                                self.poll_interval - 0.001)
    if not ok then
      if err ~= "exists" then
        log(ERR, "failed to acquire poll_interval lock: ", err)
      end
      -- else
      --   log(DEBUG, "failed to acquire poll_interval lock: ",
      --              "not enough time elapsed since last poll")

      self.shm:delete(POLL_RUNNING_LOCK_KEY)

      return false
    end
  end

  return true
end

4.2.2. 数据库 TTL

为给 PostgreSQL 加上 TTL,Kong 在 init_worker 阶段调用数据库层 db/strategies/postgres/connector.luainit_worker() 函数。

-- 以下省略部分内容,只展示关键部分
function _mt:init_worker(strategies)
  if ngx.worker.id() == 0 then

      cleanup_statements[i] = concat {
        "  DELETE FROM ",
        self:escape_identifier(table_name),
        " WHERE ",
        column_name,
        " < CURRENT_TIMESTAMP AT TIME ZONE 'UTC';"
      }

    local cleanup_statement = concat(cleanup_statements, "\n")

    return timer_every(60, function(premature)

      local ok, err, _, num_queries = self:query(cleanup_statement)
      if not ok then
        if num_queries then
          for i = num_queries + 1, cleanup_statements_count do
            local statement = cleanup_statements[i]
            local ok, err = self:query(statement)
            if not ok then
              if err then
                log(WARN, "unable to clean expired rows from table '",
                          sorted_strategies[i], "' on PostgreSQL database (",
                          err, ")")
              else
                log(WARN, "unable to clean expired rows from table '",
                          sorted_strategies[i], "' on PostgreSQL database")
              end
            end
          end

        else
          log(ERR, "unable to clean expired rows from PostgreSQL database (", err, ")")
        end
      end
    end)
  end

  return true
end

数据库初始化时新增一个 timer,在协程中调用回调函数,删除 TTL 过期的 rows。

4.2.3. 更新路由索引

kong.init_worker() 会添加定时任务,定时更新缓存。

      -- 定时重建路由缓存
      if kong.db.strategy ~= "off" then
        timer_every(worker_state_update_frequency, function(premature)
          if premature then
            return
          end

          -- Don't wait for the semaphore (timeout = 0) when updating via the
          -- timer.
          -- If the semaphore is locked, that means that the rebuild is
          -- already ongoing.
          local ok, err = rebuild_router(ROUTER_ASYNC_OPTS)
          if not ok then
            log(ERR, "could not rebuild router via timer: ", err)
          end
        end)

        timer_every(worker_state_update_frequency, function(premature)
          if premature then
            return
          end

          local ok, err = rebuild_plugins_iterator(PLUGINS_ITERATOR_ASYNC_OPTS)
          if not ok then
            log(ERR, "could not rebuild plugins iterator via timer: ", err)
          end
        end)
      end

实际调用顺序是开一个 cosocket 协程,判断 routes 是否有变化,变化则重构路由缓存。

  rebuild_router = function(opts)
    return rebuild("router", update_router, router_version, opts)
  end

local function rebuild(name, callback, version, opts)
  local current_version, err = kong.core_cache:get(name .. ":version", TTL_ZERO,
                                                   utils.uuid)
  if err then
    return nil, "failed to retrieve " .. name .. " version: " .. err
  end

  if current_version == version then
    return true
  end
	
  -- 开一个 cosocket 协程调用 callback
  return concurrency.with_coroutine_mutex(opts, callback)
end

  update_router = function()
    -- we might not need to rebuild the router (if we were not
    -- the first request in this process to enter this code path)
    -- check again and rebuild only if necessary
    local version, err = get_router_version()
    if err then
      return nil, "failed to retrieve router version: " .. err
    end

    if version == router_version then
      return true
    end

    local ok, err = build_router(version)
    if not ok then
      return nil, --[[ 'err' fully formatted ]] err
    end

    return true
  end

最终还会调用到 build_router() 方法,我们已经在 1.2.1 中描述过。

5. 事件处理

Worker 间的事件处理使用 lua-resty-worker-events 库。

事件订阅函数:events.register(callback, source, event1, event2, ...),callback 方法 callback = function(data, event, source, pid)

事件发布函数:success, err = events.post(source, event, data, unique)

5.1. 数据库事件

db/dao/init.lua 中定义了 DAO 相关的操作方法,我已经在 1.1.3 中简单阐述过了。

数据库相关实体的 CRUD(其实没有R)事件最后会调用 DAO:post_crud_event() 方法广播事件。

function DAO:post_crud_event(operation, entity, old_entity, options)
  if options and options.no_broadcast_crud_event then
    return
  end

  if self.events then
    local entity_without_nulls
    if entity then
      entity_without_nulls = remove_nulls(utils.deep_copy(entity, false))
    end

    local old_entity_without_nulls
    if old_entity then
      old_entity_without_nulls = remove_nulls(utils.deep_copy(old_entity, false))
    end

    local ok, err = self.events.post_local("dao:crud", operation, {
      operation  = operation,
      schema     = self.schema,
      entity     = entity_without_nulls,
      old_entity = old_entity_without_nulls,
    })
    if not ok then
      log(ERR, "[db] failed to propagate CRUD operation: ", err)
    end
  end
end

dao:crud 通道发布了一个事件,operation 类型有 create、update、delete。

runloop/handler.luaregister_events() 会在 kong.init_worker() 中被调用,此时会订阅数据库相关事件,添加处理函数。

  worker_events.register(function(data)
    if not data.schema then
      log(ERR, "[events] missing schema in crud subscriber")
      return
    end

    if not data.entity then
      log(ERR, "[events] missing entity in crud subscriber")
      return
    end

    -- invalidate this entity anywhere it is cached if it has a
    -- caching key
    -- 如果 entity 有 cache_key 则让它失效
    -- 基本上也只有 entity schema 定义出错的情况下才不会有 cache_key

    local cache_key = db[data.schema.name]:cache_key(data.entity)
    local cache_obj = kong[constants.ENTITY_CACHE_STORE[data.schema.name]]

    if cache_key then
      cache_obj:invalidate(cache_key)
    end

    -- if we had an update, but the cache key was part of what was updated,
    -- we need to invalidate the previous entity as well

    if data.old_entity then
      local old_cache_key = db[data.schema.name]:cache_key(data.old_entity)
      if old_cache_key and cache_key ~= old_cache_key then
        cache_obj:invalidate(old_cache_key)
      end
    end

    if not data.operation then
      log(ERR, "[events] missing operation in crud subscriber")
      return
    end

    -- public worker events propagation

    -- 获取 schema 名字
    local entity_channel           = data.schema.table or data.schema.name
    local entity_operation_channel = fmt("%s:%s", entity_channel,
      data.operation)

    -- crud:routes
    local ok, err = worker_events.post_local("crud", entity_channel, data)
    if not ok then
      log(ERR, "[events] could not broadcast crud event: ", err)
      return
    end

    -- crud:routes:create
    ok, err = worker_events.post_local("crud", entity_operation_channel, data)
    if not ok then
      log(ERR, "[events] could not broadcast crud event: ", err)
      return
    end
  end, "dao:crud")

CRUD(没有 R)事件处理流程:调用 cache:invalidate() 方法,方法内部发布了一个 worker 级事件,通知 worker 进程删除该数据,还会发布一个集群事件,在集群间同步删除数据。

  -- 修改了 Routes 后会清空 router:version 缓存,
  -- 会导致重新构建路由表,详情查看 2.2.3
  worker_events.register(function()
    log(DEBUG, "[events] Route updated, invalidating router")
    core_cache:invalidate("router:version")
  end, "crud", "routes")

...其他对象同理

6. 插件加载

6.1. 插件读取

init 阶段会加载配置文件中 plugins=bundled,skywalking-intergrator 的插件列表,调用 Lua require 加载对应的包。(所有的插件包都要求在 kong.plugins 下)

function Plugins:load_plugin_schemas(plugin_set)
  self.handlers = nil

  local go_plugins_cnt = 0
  local handlers = {}
  local errs

  -- load installed plugins
  for plugin in pairs(plugin_set) do
    local handler, err = load_plugin(self, plugin)

    if handler then
      if type(handler.is) == "function" and handler:is(BasePlugin) then
        -- Backwards-compatibility for 0.x and 1.x plugins inheriting from the
        -- BasePlugin class.
        -- TODO: deprecate & remove
        handler = handler()
      end

      if handler._go then
        go_plugins_cnt = go_plugins_cnt + 1
      end

      handlers[plugin] = handler

    else
      errs = errs or {}
      table.insert(errs, "on plugin '" .. plugin .. "': " .. tostring(err))
    end
  end

  if errs then
    return nil, "error loading plugin schemas: " .. table.concat(errs, "; ")
  end

  reports.add_immutable_value("go_plugins_cnt", go_plugins_cnt)

  self.handlers = handlers

  return true
end

所有插件的 Handler 函数会被储存在 kong.db.plugins.handlers,数据格式为 {plugin_name: handler}

所有的插件会储存到 Worker 进程上,周期性进行同步更新。

我整理了插件表加载到 Lua table 的结构,输出成 YAML,方便理解:

map:
  plugin_name: true

combos:
  plugin_name:
    # both: {}
    both: 
      route_id: service_id
    # routes: {}
    routes:
      route_id: true
    # services: {}
    services:
      service_id: true
    0: true # 全局插件
    1: true # 路由插件
    2: true # Service 插件
    3: true # 路由+Service
    4: true # Consumer 插件
    5: true # 路由+Consumer 插件
    6: true # 路由+Service+Consumer 插件

loaded:
  plugin_name:
    handler:
      phase_name: func()

6.2. 插件调用

插件不直接和路由进行绑定,插件有自己的生命周期,和 Kong 的生命周期基本相同。在 Kong 生命周期的各个阶段会调用插件的对应方法。

插件只在调用阶段进行判断,是否关联当前 Route、Service、和 Consumer,有则从数据库读取插件关联的配置项(插件 Entity),并使用 kong.core_cache 进行缓存。

local function load_configuration_through_combos(ctx, combos, plugin)
  local plugin_configuration
  local name = plugin.name

  local route    = ctx.route
  local service  = ctx.service
  local consumer = ctx.authenticated_consumer

  if route and plugin.no_route then
    route = nil
  end
  if service and plugin.no_service then
    service = nil
  end
  if consumer and plugin.no_consumer then
    consumer = nil
  end

  local    route_id = route    and    route.id or nil
  local  service_id = service  and  service.id or nil
  local consumer_id = consumer and consumer.id or nil

  if kong.db.strategy == "off" then
	...
  else
    if route_id and service_id and consumer_id and combos[COMBO_RSC]
      and combos.both[route_id] == service_id
    then
      plugin_configuration = load_configuration(ctx, name, route_id, service_id,
                                                consumer_id)
      if plugin_configuration then
        return plugin_configuration
      end
    end

    if consumer_id and combos[COMBO_C] then
      plugin_configuration = load_configuration(ctx, name, nil, nil, consumer_id)
      if plugin_configuration then
        return plugin_configuration
      end
    end

    if route_id and combos[COMBO_R] and combos.routes[route_id] then
      plugin_configuration = load_configuration(ctx, name, route_id)
      if plugin_configuration then
        return plugin_configuration
      end
    end
	
    ...

    if combos[COMBO_GLOBAL] then
      return load_configuration(ctx, name)
    end
  end
end

这里会查询当前 Service、Route 和 Consumer 是否与某个插件配对,成功则加载对应的配置项:

--- Load the configuration for a plugin entry.
-- Given a Route, Service, Consumer and a plugin name, retrieve the plugin's
-- configuration if it exists. Results are cached in ngx.dict
-- @param[type=string] name Name of the plugin being tested for configuration.
-- @param[type=string] route_id Id of the route being proxied.
-- @param[type=string] service_id Id of the service being proxied.
-- @param[type=string] consumer_id Id of the donsumer making the request (if any).
-- @treturn table Plugin configuration, if retrieved.
local function load_configuration(ctx,
                                  name,
                                  route_id,
                                  service_id,
                                  consumer_id)
  local ws_id = workspaces.get_workspace_id() or kong.default_workspace
  local key = kong.db.plugins:cache_key(name,
                                        route_id,
                                        service_id,
                                        consumer_id,
                                        nil,
                                        ws_id)
  local plugin, err = kong.core_cache:get(key,
                                          nil,
                                          load_plugin_from_db,
                                          key)
  if err then
    ctx.delay_response = false
    ngx.log(ngx.ERR, tostring(err))
    return ngx.exit(ngx.ERROR)
  end

  if not plugin or not plugin.enabled then
    return
  end

  local cfg = plugin.config or {}

  if not cfg.__key__ then
    cfg.__key__ = key
    cfg.__seq__ = next_seq
    next_seq = next_seq + 1
  end

  cfg.route_id    = plugin.route and plugin.route.id
  cfg.service_id  = plugin.service and plugin.service.id
  cfg.consumer_id = plugin.consumer and plugin.consumer.id

  return cfg
end

插件的调用有两种方式:

  1. 同步调用
  2. 异步调用

除了 access_by_lua 阶段,都是使用同步调用:

local function execute_plugins_iterator(plugins_iterator, phase, ctx)
  local old_ws = ctx and ctx.workspace
  for plugin, configuration in plugins_iterator:iterate(phase, ctx) do
    if ctx then
      if plugin.handler._go then
        ctx.ran_go_plugin = true
      end

      kong_global.set_named_ctx(kong, "plugin", plugin.handler)
    end

    kong_global.set_namespaced_log(kong, plugin.name)
    -- 这里是同步调用
    plugin.handler[phase](plugin.handler, configuration)
    kong_global.reset_log(kong)

    if ctx then
      ctx.workspace = old_ws
    end
  end
end

而在 access_by_lua 阶段,使用协程异步调用:

  for plugin, plugin_conf in plugins_iterator:iterate("access", ctx) do
    if plugin.handler._go then
      ctx.ran_go_plugin = true
    end

    if not ctx.delayed_response then
      kong_global.set_named_ctx(kong, "plugin", plugin.handler)
      kong_global.set_namespaced_log(kong, plugin.name)

      -- 使用 Lua coroutine 开启协程异步调用插件函数
      local err = coroutine.wrap(plugin.handler.access)(plugin.handler, plugin_conf)
      if err then
        kong.log.err(err)
        ctx.delayed_response = {
          status_code = 500,
          content     = { message  = "An unexpected error occurred" },
        }
      end

      kong_global.reset_log(kong)
    end
    ctx.workspace = old_ws
  end

7. 缓存机制

本节根据我对 Kong 源码的分析,做一个缓存机制的小回顾。

Kong 针对缓存有这些操作:

  • 初始化缓存块
  • 预载加载数据库内容到缓存
  • 访问时才加载的数据内容添加到缓存
  • timer 定时更新缓存
  • 数据库 CRUD 操作删除缓存
  • 集群/Worker 间同步缓存

缓存加载内容:

默认配置下,Kong 将路由表和 Routes 全量加载到每个 Worker 的内存,Services 和 Plugins 全量加载到每个 Worker 的内存和共享内存中。Upstreams 和 Targets 根据负载均衡器的解析及时从数据库获取,加载到内存和共享内存中。

上述 Entity 加载在由 mlcache 库创建的 L1+L2 两级缓存 core_cache 中。

而 consumers 加载到同为 mlcache 创建的不同名的 cache 中。

8. 请求生命周期

本节讲述一个请求经过 Kong 处理的流程。

8.1. ssl_certificate_by_lua 阶段

local function execute()
  local sn, err = server_name()
  if err then
    log(ERR, "could not retrieve SNI: ", err)
    return ngx.exit(ngx.ERROR)
  end

  local cert_and_key, err = find_certificate(sn)
  if err then
    log(ERR, err)
    return ngx.exit(ngx.ERROR)
  end

  if cert_and_key == default_cert_and_key then
    -- use (already set) fallback certificate
    return
  end

  -- set the certificate for this connection

  local ok, err = clear_certs()
  if not ok then
    log(ERR, "could not clear existing (default) certificates: ", err)
    return ngx.exit(ngx.ERROR)
  end

  ok, err = set_cert(cert_and_key.cert)
  if not ok then
    log(ERR, "could not set configured certificate: ", err)
    return ngx.exit(ngx.ERROR)
  end

  ok, err = set_priv_key(cert_and_key.key)
  if not ok then
    log(ERR, "could not set configured private key: ", err)
    return ngx.exit(ngx.ERROR)
  end
end

根据 Server Name 查找对应 SSL 证书 Cert 和私钥并设置在 Nginx 上。

8.2. rewrite_by_lua 阶段

  local ctx = ngx.ctx
  if not ctx.KONG_PROCESSING_START then
    ctx.KONG_PROCESSING_START = ngx.req.start_time() * 1000
  end

  if not ctx.KONG_REWRITE_START then
    ctx.KONG_REWRITE_START = get_now_ms()
  end

  kong_global.set_phase(kong, PHASES.rewrite)
  kong_resty_ctx.stash_ref()

  local is_https = var.https == "on"
  if not is_https then
    log_init_worker_errors(ctx)
  end

  runloop.rewrite.before(ctx)

...

  rewrite = {
    before = function(ctx)
      ctx.host_port = HOST_PORTS[var.server_port] or var.server_port

      -- special handling for proxy-authorization and te headers in case
      -- the plugin(s) want to specify them (store the original)
      ctx.http_proxy_authorization = var.http_proxy_authorization
      ctx.http_te                  = var.http_te
    end,
  },

初始化 kong.ctx 生命周期 Context,为 Context 添加请求信息。

8.3. access_by_lua 阶段

8.3.1. 路由匹配

runloop.access.before 会进行调用 Router 实例进行路由匹配。首先会调用 get_updated_router() 判断是否有路由更新,没有则返回当前 Router 实例。

      -- routing request
      local router = get_updated_router()
	  -- 调用 Router.exec() 查找匹配的路由
      local match_t = router.exec()
      if not match_t then
        return kong.response.exit(404, { message = "no Route matched with those values" })
      end

Router.exec() 方法最终会调用 Router.find_route() 方法,该方法接收请求头字段,并生成路由 Cache Key,查找对应的项目。

  local function find_route(req_method, req_uri, req_host, req_scheme,
                            src_ip, src_port,
                            dst_ip, dst_port,
                            sni, req_headers)
    
    req_method = req_method or ""
    req_uri = req_uri or ""
    req_host = req_host or ""
    req_headers = req_headers or EMPTY_T

    ctx.req_method     = req_method
    ctx.req_uri        = req_uri
    ctx.req_host       = req_host
    ctx.req_headers    = req_headers
    ctx.src_ip         = src_ip or ""
    ctx.src_port       = src_port or ""
    ctx.dst_ip         = dst_ip or ""
    ctx.dst_port       = dst_port or ""
    ctx.sni            = sni or ""
    
    local cache_key = req_method .. "|" .. req_uri .. "|" .. req_host ..
                      "|" .. ctx.src_ip .. "|" .. ctx.src_port ..
                      "|" .. ctx.dst_ip .. "|" .. ctx.dst_port ..
                      "|" .. ctx.sni

    do
      local match_t = cache:get(cache_key)
      if match_t and hits.header_name == nil then
        return match_t
      end
    end

如果 LRU 缓存中有匹配路由,则直接返回。

否则继续匹配路由,生成匹配项目,并存入缓存中。

              ...
              local match_t     = {
                  route           = matched_route.route,
                  service         = matched_route.service,
                  headers         = matched_route.headers,
                  upstream_url_t  = upstream_url_t,
                  upstream_scheme = upstream_url_t.scheme,
                  upstream_uri    = upstream_uri,
                  upstream_host   = upstream_host,
                  prefix          = request_prefix,
                  matches         = {
                    uri_captures  = matches.uri_captures,
                    uri           = matches.uri,
                    host          = matches.host,
                    headers       = matches.headers,
                    method        = matches.method,
                    src_ip        = matches.src_ip,
                    src_port      = matches.src_port,
                    dst_ip        = matches.dst_ip,
                    dst_port      = matches.dst_port,
                    sni           = matches.sni,
                  }
                }

                if band(matched_route.match_rules, MATCH_RULES.HEADER) == 0 then
                  cache:set(cache_key, match_t)
                end
                ...

匹配成功后会将关联的 Route 和 Service 写入 ngx.ctx ,在接下来的生命周期中共享。

8.3.2. 请求调度

runloop.access.after 中根据 Route、Service 等条件解析出后端要请求的 IP、Port、Schema 等参数。

-- looks up a balancer for the target.
-- @param target the table with the target details
-- @param no_create (optional) if true, do not attempt to create
-- (for thorough testing purposes)
-- @return balancer if found, `false` if not found, or nil+error on error
local function get_balancer(target, no_create)
  -- NOTE: only called upon first lookup, so `cache_only` limitations
  -- do not apply here
  local hostname = target.host


  -- first go and find the upstream object, from cache or the db
  local upstream, err = get_upstream_by_name(hostname)
  if upstream == false then
    return false -- no upstream by this name
  end
  if err then
    return nil, err -- there was an error
  end

  local balancer = balancers[upstream.id]
  if not balancer then
    if no_create then
      return nil, "balancer not found"
    else
      log(ERR, "balancer not found for ", upstream.name, ", will create it")
      return create_balancer(upstream), upstream
    end
  end

  return balancer, upstream
end

get_balancer() 根据 Service 的 Host 返回最终请求的 Target,和负载均衡器。

  local ip, port, hostname, handle
  if balancer then
    -- have to invoke the ring-balancer
    local hstate = run_hook("balancer:get_peer:pre", target.host)
    ip, port, hostname, handle = balancer:getPeer(dns_cache_only,
                                          target.balancer_handle,
                                          hash_value)
    run_hook("balancer:get_peer:post", hstate)
    if not ip and
      (port == "No peers are available" or port == "Balancer is unhealthy") then
      return nil, "failure to get a peer from the ring-balancer", 503
    end
    hostname = hostname or ip
    target.hash_value = hash_value
    target.balancer_handle = handle

  else
    -- have to do a regular DNS lookup
    local try_list
    local hstate = run_hook("balancer:to_ip:pre", target.host)
    ip, port, try_list = toip(target.host, target.port, dns_cache_only)
    run_hook("balancer:to_ip:post", hstate)
    hostname = target.host
    if not ip then
      log(ERR, "DNS resolution failed: ", port, ". Tried: ", tostring(try_list))
      if port == "dns server error: 3 name error" or
         port == "dns client error: 101 empty record received" then
        return nil, "name resolution failed", 503
      end
    end
  end

调用负载均衡器的策略获取 Target 的 IP,或者直接使用 DNS 查询获取 IP 地址,这一步在 2.1.1 中已经提前进行了 DNS 预缓存,这里可以从缓存中读取。

如果 Service Host 直接是 IP 地址,则不执行负载均衡策略。

  -- ip 则直接返回
  if target.type ~= "name" then
    -- it's an ip address (v4 or v6), so nothing we can do...
    target.ip = target.host
    target.port = target.port or 80 -- TODO: remove this fallback value
    target.hostname = target.host
    return true
  end

8.4. balancer_by_lua 阶段

使用 ngx.balancer.set_more_tries() 设置错误重试次数,使用 ngx.balancer.get_last_failure() 获取上一次请求错误详情,在错误处理中进行对上游节点进行被动健康检查。

  if balancer_data.try_count > 1 then
    -- only call balancer on retry, first one is done in `runloop.access.after`
    -- which runs in the ACCESS context and hence has less limitations than
    -- this BALANCER context where the retries are executed

    -- record failure data
    local previous_try = tries[balancer_data.try_count - 1]
    previous_try.state, previous_try.code = get_last_failure()

    -- Report HTTP status for health checks
    local balancer = balancer_data.balancer
    if balancer then
      if previous_try.state == "failed" then
        if previous_try.code == 504 then
          balancer.report_timeout(balancer_data.balancer_handle)
        else
          balancer.report_tcp_failure(balancer_data.balancer_handle)
        end

      else
        balancer.report_http_status(balancer_data.balancer_handle,
                                    previous_try.code)
      end
    end

    local ok, err, errcode = balancer_execute(balancer_data)
    if not ok then
      ngx_log(ngx_ERR, "failed to retry the dns/balancer resolver for ",
              tostring(balancer_data.host), "' with: ", tostring(err))

      ctx.KONG_BALANCER_ENDED_AT = get_now_ms()
      ctx.KONG_BALANCER_TIME = ctx.KONG_BALANCER_ENDED_AT - ctx.KONG_BALANCER_START
      ctx.KONG_PROXY_LATENCY = ctx.KONG_BALANCER_ENDED_AT - ctx.KONG_PROCESSING_START

      return ngx.exit(errcode)
    end

  else
    -- first try, so set the max number of retries
    local retries = balancer_data.retries
    if retries > 0 then
      set_more_tries(retries)
    end
  end

请求到最终解析的后端服务,使用 ngx.balancer.set_current_peer() 方法设置访问的地址。

  -- set the targets as resolved
  ngx_log(ngx_DEBUG, "setting address (try ", balancer_data.try_count, "): ",
                     balancer_data.ip, ":", balancer_data.port)
  -- 最终调度的地址
  local ok, err = set_current_peer(balancer_data.ip, balancer_data.port, pool_opts)
  if not ok then
    ngx_log(ngx_ERR, "failed to set the current peer (address: ",
            tostring(balancer_data.ip), " port: ", tostring(balancer_data.port),
            "): ", tostring(err))

    ctx.KONG_BALANCER_ENDED_AT = get_now_ms()
    ctx.KONG_BALANCER_TIME = ctx.KONG_BALANCER_ENDED_AT - ctx.KONG_BALANCER_START
    ctx.KONG_PROXY_LATENCY = ctx.KONG_BALANCER_ENDED_AT - ctx.KONG_PROCESSING_START

    return ngx.exit(500)
  end

8.5. header_filter_by_lua 阶段

此阶段在 Kong 接收完上游服务返回的 Header 字段后执行。

      local upstream_status_header = constants.HEADERS.UPSTREAM_STATUS
      if singletons.configuration.enabled_headers[upstream_status_header] then
        header[upstream_status_header] = tonumber(sub(var.upstream_status or "", -3))
        if not header[upstream_status_header] then
          log(ERR, "failed to set ", upstream_status_header, " header")
        end
      end

      local hash_cookie = ctx.balancer_data.hash_cookie
      if not hash_cookie then
        return
      end

      local cookie = ck:new()
      local ok, err = cookie:set(hash_cookie)

runloop.header_filter.before 中在返回结果的 header 里加入节点状态,以及判断是否需要加入负载均衡器一致性策略的 Cookie。

8.6. body_filter_by_lua 阶段

此阶段在接收上游服务返回的 Body 数据时执行,根据数据大小划分 chunks,此阶段会被执行多次。

在 Openresty 的生命周期里,body_filter_by_lua 中使用 ngx.arg[1] 读取 chunk,使用 ngx.arg[2] 标记 EOF。

  -- 获取到了所有的 body
  if kong.ctx.core.response_body then
    arg[1] = kong.ctx.core.response_body
    arg[2] = true
  end

  if not arg[2] then
    return
  end

  -- 获取到所有的 body 后
  -- 再统计执行时间
  ctx.KONG_BODY_FILTER_ENDED_AT = get_now_ms()
  ctx.KONG_BODY_FILTER_TIME = ctx.KONG_BODY_FILTER_ENDED_AT - ctx.KONG_BODY_FILTER_START

  if ctx.KONG_PROXIED then
    -- time spent receiving the response (header_filter + body_filter)
    -- we could use $upstream_response_time but we need to distinguish the waiting time
    -- from the receiving time in our logging plugins (especially ALF serializer).
    ctx.KONG_RECEIVE_TIME = ctx.KONG_BODY_FILTER_ENDED_AT - (ctx.KONG_HEADER_FILTER_START or
                                                             ctx.KONG_BALANCER_ENDED_AT or
                                                             ctx.KONG_BALANCER_START or
                                                             ctx.KONG_ACCESS_ENDED_AT)

8.7. log_by_lua 阶段

调用 Lua 的垃圾回收器统计 Kong 占用内存情况:

local update_lua_mem
do
  local pid = ngx.worker.pid
  local kong_shm = ngx.shared.kong

  local Lua_MEM_SAMPLE_RATE = 10 -- seconds
  local last = ngx.time()

  local collectgarbage = collectgarbage

  update_lua_mem = function(force)
    local time = ngx.time()

    if force or time - last >= Lua_MEM_SAMPLE_RATE then
      local count = collectgarbage("count")

      local ok, err = kong_shm:safe_set("kong:mem:" .. pid(), count)
      if not ok then
        log(ERR, "could not record Lua VM allocated memory: ", err)
      end

      last = ngx.time()
    end
  end
end

根据响应结果调用负载均衡器调整上游节点的权重:

      -- If response was produced by an upstream (ie, not by a Kong plugin)
      -- Report HTTP status for health checks
      local balancer_data = ctx.balancer_data
      if balancer_data and balancer_data.balancer_handle then
        local status = ngx.status
        if status == 504 then
          balancer_data.balancer.report_timeout(balancer_data.balancer_handle)
        else
          balancer_data.balancer.report_http_status(
            balancer_data.balancer_handle, status)
        end
        -- release the handle, so the balancer can update its statistics
        balancer_data.balancer_handle:release()
      end

9. Admin API

Kong Admin API 入口:

function Kong.admin_content(options)
  local ctx = ngx.ctx
  if not ctx.workspace then
    ctx.workspace = kong.default_workspace
  end

  return serve_content("kong.api", options)
end
local function serve_content(module, options)

  -- CORS 跨域相关
  header["Access-Control-Allow-Origin"] = options.allow_origin or "*"

  -- 启动 lapis
  lapis.serve(module)
end

关于 Lapis

Lapis is a framework for building web applications using MoonScript or Lua that runs inside of a customized version of Nginx called OpenResty.

# api/init.lua
-- 加载固定路由
-- Load core routes
for _, v in ipairs({"kong", "health", "cache", "config", "clustering"}) do
  local routes = require("kong.api.routes." .. v)
  api_helpers.attach_routes(app, routes)
end

  local routes = {}

  -- DAO Routes
  for _, dao in pairs(singletons.db.daos) do
    if dao.schema.generate_admin_api ~= false and not dao.schema.legacy then
      routes = Endpoints.new(dao.schema, routes)
    end
  end

初始化构建路由:

# api/endpoints.lua
-- 创建基础路由
-- Generates admin api endpoint functions
--
-- Examples:
--
-- /routes
-- /routes/:routes
-- /routes/:routes/service
-- /services/:services/routes
--
-- and
--
-- /services
-- /services/:services
-- /services/:services/routes/:routes
local function generate_endpoints(schema, endpoints)
  -- list 路由
  -- e.g. /routes
  generate_collection_endpoints(endpoints, schema)

  -- 单体路由
  -- e.g. /routes/:routes
  generate_entity_endpoints(endpoints, schema)

  -- 判断是否有关联对象
  -- 例如 route 关联 services
  for foreign_field_name, foreign_field in schema:each_field() do
    -- 外键
    if foreign_field.type == "foreign" and not foreign_field.schema.legacy then
      -- e.g. /routes/:routes/service
      generate_entity_endpoints(endpoints, schema, foreign_field.schema, foreign_field_name, true)

      -- e.g. /services/:services/routes
      generate_collection_endpoints(endpoints, schema, foreign_field.schema, foreign_field_name)

      -- e.g. /services/:services/routes/:routes
      generate_entity_endpoints(endpoints, foreign_field.schema, schema, foreign_field_name)
    end
  end

  return endpoints
end

-- Generates admin api collection endpoint functions
--
-- Examples:
--
-- /routes
-- /services/:services/routes
--
-- and
--
-- /services
local function generate_collection_endpoints(endpoints, schema, foreign_schema, foreign_field_name)
  local collection_path

  -- 外键关联
  if foreign_schema then
    collection_path = fmt("/%s/:%s/%s", foreign_schema.admin_api_name or
                                        foreign_schema.name,
                                        foreign_schema.name,
                                        schema.admin_api_nested_name or
                                        schema.admin_api_name or
                                        schema.name)

  else
    -- 没有外键关联
    collection_path = fmt("/%s", schema.admin_api_name or
                                 schema.name)
  end

  endpoints[collection_path] = {
    schema  = schema,
    methods = {
      --OPTIONS = method_not_allowed,
      --HEAD    = method_not_allowed,
      GET     = get_collection_endpoint(schema, foreign_schema, foreign_field_name),
      POST    = post_collection_endpoint(schema, foreign_schema, foreign_field_name),
      --PUT     = method_not_allowed,
      --PATCH   = method_not_allowed,
      --DELETE  = method_not_allowed,
    },
  }
end

只关注 POST 请求处理的部分:

local function post_collection_endpoint(schema, foreign_schema, foreign_field_name, method)
  return function(self, db, helpers, post_process)
    if foreign_schema then
      local foreign_entity, _, err_t = select_entity(self, db, foreign_schema)
      if err_t then
        return handle_error(err_t)
      end

      if not foreign_entity then
        return not_found()
      end

      self.args.post[foreign_field_name] = foreign_schema:extract_pk_values(foreign_entity)
    end

    -- 处理请求,参数校验,插入数据    
    local entity, _, err_t = insert_entity(self, db, schema, method)
    if err_t then
      return handle_error(err_t)
    end
    
    -- 回调函数
    if post_process then
      entity, _, err_t = post_process(entity)
      if err_t then
        return handle_error(err_t)
      end
    end

    return created(entity)
  end
end

Admin API 仅仅是一层 API 封装,不负责背后的事件处理和数据同步,背后的事件处理在文章事件处理部分阐述过了。

10. 插件开发

简单介绍一下插件开发能用上的一些小 Trick。

10.1. 多层 Schema 嵌套

看着很恶心吧,但这是多层 Schema 嵌套的样子。

local schema = {
    name = plugin_name,
    fields = {
        { consumer = typedefs.no_consumer },
        { protocols = typedefs.protocols_http },
        { config = {
          type = "record",
          fields = { {
            rules = {
              type = "array",
              elements = {
                type = "record",
                fields = { {
                  match = {
                    type = "array",
                    elements = {
                      type = "record",
                      fields = {
                        { vars = { type = "array", elements = { 
                            type = "array",
                            elements = { type = "string" }
                        } } }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                } }
              }
            }
          } },
        } }
    }
}

10.2. 自定义 Schema 校验器

local expr = require("resty.expr.v1")

local schema_validator = function(conf)
    if conf.rules then
        for _, rule in ipairs(conf.rules) do
            if rule.match and type(rule.match) == "table" then
                for _, m in pairs(rule.match) do
                    local ok, err = expr.new(m.vars)
                    if not ok then
                        return false, "failed to validate the 'vars' expression: " .. err
                    end
                end
            end
        end
    end

    return true
end

10.3. 日志打印 Table

kong.log.inspect.on()
kong.log.debug("Lua table: ", t)

10.4. 自定义日志输出

2.3.0 版本以上可用。

local entry = {
    entries = ctx.log_entries,
    id = self.transaction_id,
    action = action_name,
}

kong.log.set_serialize_value("waf", entry)

  1. 🦍 The Cloud-Native API Gateway ↩︎